Climate change. In December 2023, the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 28) was held in Dubai. There, the 197 countries participating in the meeting adopted the United Arab Emirates Consensus. After multiple debates, it included for the first time a concrete intention for all signatory countries to initiate the transition to effectively replace fossil fuels with renewable options. The next COP will be held in Baku, Azerbaijan, in 2024 and the first actions taken by the countries to achieve this transition will be analyzed.
The agreement provides an overall assessment of the implementation of the Paris Agreement. Thus the new text upholds the goal of restricting global warming and mentions fossil fuels for the first time in 28 years as an area in which to work to achieve this goal. This inclusion came after Saudi Arabia and other oil-producing countries objected to including a reference to the “phase out” or “phase down” of the use of these energy products.
However, the agreement finally calls on states to initiate a transition away from fossil fuels, “in an orderly and equitable manner, accelerating action in this critical decade, with the aim of achieving the goal of zero net emissions by 2050, in accordance with science”. It also calls for tripling the amount of renewable and solar energy by 2030, as well as reducing methane emissions.
The next COP will be held in Baku, Azerbaijan, in November 2024. Participating countries must engage in dialogue to agree on effective implementation of the UAE Consensus. This may include adjustments to national targets and commitments. In addition, the international community will address the methodology to foster the production of renewable and solar energy by 2030, promoting the development of sustainable technologies and investment in infrastructure that will boost the use of clean energy sources.