On December 3, the foreign ministers of 16 South American countries meeting in Colombia, passed a resolution against Venezuela imposing a series of financial and diplomatic sanctions on Nicolás Maduro and several key members of his administration, including Venezuelan Vice President, Delcy Rodríguez and National Constituent Assembly (ANC) President, Diosdado Cabello. The meeting took place within the framework of the application of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (TIAR, for its acronym in Spanish), otherwise known as the Rio Treaty, against Venezuela. TIAR members will meet again before March 2020 in order to continue discussing new sanctions against the South American country.
The resolution, signed by the countries of the region such as Colombia, Argentina and Peru, establishes that TIAR members may activate the financial intelligence and due diligence mechanisms necessary to identify possible money laundering crimes committed by Nicolás Maduro’s associates. In addition, entry and transit restrictions will be applied in the territories of TIAR member states.
So far, a total of 29 people have been sanctioned: Nicolás Maduro; his wife Cilia Flores; Venezuelan Vice-President Delcy Rodríguez; ANC President Diosdado Cabello; Economic Area Vice-President Tareck El Aissami; Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza; President of the Supreme Court of Justice (TSJ) Maikel Moreno; President of the National Electoral Council (CNE) Tibisay Lucena; and Defence Minister Jorge Padrino López.
The Rio Treaty is an agreement establishing diplomatic and military cooperation between countries on the continent against intra- and extra-regional aggressions to member states. The Organization of American States (OAS) launched the application of the TIAR against Venezuela on September 11, considering that the crisis in the South American country represents a threat to peace and security in the hemisphere. TIAR considers the use of military force as a last resort to resolve a conflict.