On 28 May, the National Assembly (NA) passed in first debate Venezuela’s re-entry into the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (TIAR), from which it had withdrawn in 2013. TIAR establishes diplomatic and military cooperation between the countries of the continent in the face of intra- and extra-regional aggressions against member States. In order for the reincorporation to be formalized, the measure must be discussed once again and passed in the NA. Subsequently, the Executive branch must enact it and communicate this to the Organization of American States (OAS).
During the discussion of the treaty, the president of the NA, Juan Guaidó, explained that TIAR represents an “additional exit mechanism to the crisis caused by Nicolás Maduro”. In this sense, the treaty would permit the use of military force “in the exercise of the right to legitimate defense”. For its part, the Maduro administration accused Guaidó of seeking to endorse a military intervention in Venezuela by rejoining the TIAR.
However, the TIAR sees military force as a final resort, with several proposed instances prior to that. In resolving a conflict, members can first decide to break up their diplomatic relations with the aggressor state and, for instance, establish an economic blockade.